Hybrid Functional Model


  • The Hybrid Functional Model emphasizes on optimising integrated concepts of Peripheral Pain Pathway Model (Module1), Peripheral Radicular Pain Model (Module 2) & Neuroconnective Model (Module 3) conined together.
  • Muscle ibers are arranged longitudinally close to one another & the typical arrangements help them to be quite elastic & exhibit a lot of tensile strength, but fails even with slightest shearing force
  • The Fascial Adhesive Bands (FAB), Fascial Adhesions (FA) sometimes feels like a twisted leather belt or sometimes feel like a water wave near the joint or sometimes feels like a tight knot typically a nut or almond sized, will be explained in detail.
  • The formulation is based on the fundamental ideas that the development of fascial adhesion due to toxic adaptations are connective tissue dysfunction (CTD) which can be restored immediately by reduction of pain in the patient, which helps in restoring muscle strength, muscle mobility & muscle function.
  • The presence of the Fascial Adhesive Band (FAB), Fascial Adhesive Areas (FAA), which are results of slightest shearing force because the muscle can only withstand longitudinal force & not shearing force, the Nerves sometimes gets fixed.
  • The referred pain can be perceived in any region of the body, but the size of the referred pain area is variable & can be inluenced by changes in somatosensory maps.
  • The process where Nerve gets ixed is called as Neural Fixation in which the nerve typically loses its ability to glide & Stretch which results in increase in its intraneural or perineural pressure.
  • The neuro connective schema memory is based on the natural movement sequences; hence
    working on the fascia is like working on the Movement Disorder Syndromes (MDS).
  • It is the ability of the fascia on perception of pain that is nociception is affected & severe pain is triggered & contributes a lot of disturbance on the locomotor system.


Hybrid Functional Model is a two day course and has a total credit or CEU’s of 20 HRS which consists of 4 HRS Pre Reading and 16 HRS of practical lab sessions.


  1. Introduction, Past studies & History of dry needling.
  2. Different Models of dry needling along with current research work.
  3. The Foundation of Fascial Adhesion Model (FAM).
  4. Introduction, Types & Classiication of pain.
  5. What is functional integrated dry needling & when it is used?
  6. Anatomy of muscles & Areas of palpation.


Day 1

9:00 am to 10:30 am
(A) Needle safety & Infection control, OSHA standard.
(B) APTA, ASAP guidelines for safe dry needling.
(C) Structure of Vitality. (Neurophysiology)
(1) Optical effects.
(2) Segmental analgesic effects.
(3) Opioids mechanism.
(4) Non-Opioids mechanism.
(5) Nerve Fixation
(6) Descending Inhibitory pain control matrix.
(7) Biochemical modulation.
(8) Pain Gate mechanism.
(9) Antidote effect.
(D) Contraindications & Indications of dry needling.
(E) Adverse affects, Precautions & Limitations of dry needling.
(F) Self practice & understanding different sizes of needles used for the procedure.
(G) Segments & Guidelines of needle manipulation.

10:30 am to 12:00 noon
The functional integrated approach of needling of the following muscles, bands, tendons &
its fascial adhesions of the Lower Limb & Face will be explained in detail with the practical Lab
(A) Hip Functional Areas:
(1) Gluteus Group
(2) Piriformis
(3) Iliotibial (IT) Band & TFL.
(4) Quadriceps Group & Sartorius.
(5) Iliotibial (IT) Band.

12:00 Noon to 1:00 pm

1:00 pm to 3:00 pm
(B) Knee & Ankle Functional Areas:
(1) Popliteus
(2) Tibialis Anterior
(3) Gastrocnemius & Soleus
(4) Hamstring Group
(5) Osteoarthritis of Knee joint (Retinacular Stimulation Technique).
(6) Extensor Hallucis Brevis
(7) Extensor Hallucis Longus.

3:00 pm to 5:00 pm
The functional integrated approach of needling of the following muscles, bands, tendons &
its fascial adhesions of the Spine & Shoulder will be explained in detail with the practical Lab
(A) Cervical Functional Areas:
(1) Semispinalis Capitis
(2) Sternocleidomastoid
(3) Upper Trapezius.

(B) Thoracic & Lumbar Functional Areas:
(1) Multiidus (Lumbar & Thoracic)
(2) Paraspinal Muscles
(3) Sciatic Nerve with Common Peroneal Nerve low.

(C) Shoulder Functional Areas:
(1) Serratus Anterior
(2) Deltoid
(3) Supraspinatus & InfraSpinatus
(4) Pectoralis Group

(D) Arm & Forearm Functional Areas:
(1) Biceps Brachii
(2) Triceps Brachii
(3) Brachioradialis.
(4) Flexor Carpi Radialis
(5) Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
(6) Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
(7) Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis.

Day 2

9:00 am to 12:00 noon
The functional integrated approach of needling Upper Limb & Lower Limb nerve pain
pathway will be explained in details with the practical Lab sessions:
(A) Upper Limb Nerve Pain Pathway:
(1) Axillary Nerve Flow
(2) Musculocutaneous Nerve Flow
(3) Radial Nerve Flow
(4) Median Nerve Flow
(5) Ulnar Nerve Flow
(B) Lower Limb Nerve Pain Pathway:
(1) Sciatic Nerve with Tibial Nerve Flow
(2) Obturator Nerve Flow
(3) Femoral Nerve with Saphenous Nerve Flow

12:00 Noon to 1:00 pm

1:00 pm to 4:00 pm
The functional integrated approach of needling of the Neuro Connective myofascial
segment & its bony stations will be explained in detail with the practical Lab sessions:
(A) Supericial front Neuro Connective myofascial segment
(1) Toe Extensors, Tibialis Anterior & Anterior crural compartment
(2) Sub – Patellar tendon
(3) Rectus Femoris/ Quadriceps
(4) Rectus Abdominalis
(5) Sternochondral fascia
(6) Sternocleidomastoid
(7) Anterior Scalp fascia

(B) Supericial back Neuro Connective myofascial segment:
(1) Plantar Fascia
(2) Gastrocnemius/Achilles Tendon
(3) Hamstrings
(4) Sacrotuberous Ligament
(5) Sacrolumbar fascia/ Erector Spinae
(6) Epicranial fascia.

(C) Lateral Neuro Connective Myofascial Segment:
(1) Peroneus Longus (Fibularis Longus), lateral crural compartment
(2) Anterior Ligament of head of ibula
(3) Iliotibial Tract
(4) Tensor fascia lata
(5) Gluteus maximus
(6) Lateral Abdominal Obliques
(7) External and Internal Intercostals
(8) Splenius Capitis

4:00 pm to 4:30 pm
(1) Principles and treatment of scar tissue
(2) De Quervain’s Syndrome
(3) Achilles Tendinitis
(4) TMJ Dysfunction

4:30 pm To 5:00 pm
Exam Theory & Practical